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???????????? (? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? diro ? filum, ???????? ???? ????) ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? Dirofilaria, ????????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????.

?????????????? ?????? ??????, ?????, ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????? - ???????? ????????? Filariidae: Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens ? ??????. ???????????? ????????? ?????? 25-30 ??, ???????????, ??????? (????????????) ????? ????? 0,22-0,29 ??, ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????. Dirofilaria immitis ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????, ? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ????? ? ? ?????? ??????????.

???????? ????????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????????, ? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????. ????? ???????????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? (????????????) ??????????????? ? ?????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????.

?????????????????? ??????. ??????????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ????????.

? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????, ???????? ????????, ????????? ????, ? 1998 ???? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????, ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????. ? ?????? ? 2004-2006 ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????.

??????????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? (??????????? ????, ???, ????????? ??????, ???????). ? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????. ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????, ??????? ????????????, ????????, ????????.

?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????, ??????, ????? ? ??????, ?????? ????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ? ??????. ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????, ? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ???????. ????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ??????? D. immitis ? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ? ?????? ??????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ??????, ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????. ????? ????, ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? (????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????), ??????????????? (?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????). ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????????.

???????????. ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ??????????????, ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ? ????????? ?????, ? ????? ???????????????? ????? ??????. ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????. ???????????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????, ?????? ??? ??? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ????????. ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????? ???????.

???????. ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? (???????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????), ??? ? ?? ???????????? ????? (? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ? ????????).
????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ??-??????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ???????, ????? ????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????.

? ???????? ????????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????: ???????, ??????????, ?????????, ??????????, ??????????.

????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ?????? ????, ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? - ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????. ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????. ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????.

????????????. ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????????, ???????? ?????, ? ????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????.

?? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? 1-2 ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ???????.

??? ???????????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????, ??? ? ??????????? ? ???????????. ???????????? in vitro ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????? ? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???, ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????. ??????????? ? ????????? 1,25 mg/kg ??? ???????? ???????? ?? 100% ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? Dirofilaria immitis, ? ? ????????? 0,5 mg/kg ??? ???????????? ???????? D. immitis.

???????? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? - ??????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? (10%) ? ??????????? (2,5%), ? ??? ?? ??????????????? ????????. ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? (? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????) ?????????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?? ???? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ????????????????? ????????????? ????????? (?????, ???).

??????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????? 4-9 ???? ????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????????. ??? ???????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? (?????? ????????? 1 ?????). ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????????/??????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????.

?????????? ????????, ??? ???? ? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????-?? ??????? ? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ?? ??? ?????????? 3 mg/kg ? 15 mg/kg, ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????????, ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

????? ????-?? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????.

??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???? (Ctenocephalides canis), ???? (Linognatus setotus), ????????????? (Sarcoptes canis, Otodectes cynotis) ? ???????????? (Demodex canis) ??????, ???????? ??????? Toxocara canis, Toxocara leonine, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???? ????????, ? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? Dirofilaria immitis ?????????????? ? ?????.

??????????:

1. Marsella R: Advances in flea control. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29:14071424, 1999.
2. Blagburn BL: Changing trends in ectoparasite control, in Thoday K, Foil C, Bond R (eds): Advances in Veterinary Dermatology. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2002, pp 5968.

3. Rust MK: Advances in the control of Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) on cats and dogs. Trends Parasitol 21:232236, 2005.

4. Bossard RL, Hinkle NC, Rust MK: Review of insecticide resistance in cat fleas. J Med Entomol 35:415422, 1998.5. Bardt D, Schein E: Zur problematik von therapieresitenten flohpopulationen am beispiel des stammes Cottontail. Kleintierpraxis 41:561566, 1996.

6. Payne PA, Dryden MW, Smith V, et al: Effect of 0.29% w/w fipronil spray on adult flea mortality and egg production of three different cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouch?), strains infesting cats. Vet Parasitol 102:331340, 2001.

7. Schenker R, Humbert-Droz E, Moyses EW, et al: Efficacy of nitenpyram against a flea strain with resistance to fipronil. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 23: 1619, 2001.

8. Bass C, Schroeder I, Turberg L, et al: Identification of the Rdl mutation in laboratory and field strains of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

???????????: ???????? ????????? Filariidae:
Dirofilaria immitis (???????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????)

?????????? ????? ???????????

??????????? ?????? ????? ?????

Summary
E.A Lavrova: New aspects in prevention of dirofilariasis in dogs. Center of molecular diagnostics (FGU "VGNKI").

Dirofilariasis is widespread in many cities of Russia.Dirofilariae are biohelminths at which as intermediate owners mosquitoes serve. Diagnostics is possible at early stages of illness. The certain therapy dirofilariasis is still not found. Some preparations offered, as treatment and preventive maintenance dirofilariasis are toxic for animals. Preventive maintenance consists in struggle against mosquitoes and the use of repellents.

The company Bayer has the Advocate - combined antiparasitic means in the form of spot-on. As operating substances imidacloprid and moxidectin which do not represent danger to a processable animal.